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Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation Assay Detected Progesterone Receptor and Grb2 Interaction in Lung Cancer Cells
Nattamolphan Wittayavimol1 & Viroj Boonyaratanakornkit 1,2
1Department of Clinical Chemistry and Graduate Program in Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. 2Age-related Inflammation and Degeneration Research Unit, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
ABSTRACT - Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is an important signaling pathway promoting the growth and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Upon binding to EGF, activated EGFR become autophosphorylated, recruit Grb2-SOS complex and activate Ras signaling cascade, resulting in cell survival and proliferation. Grb2-SOS complex formation requires interaction between Grb2-SH3 domain and polyproline domain (PPD) of SOS. Our previous studies showed that PR extranuclear signaling possibly through PR-PPD interfering with Grb-SH3 interactions, blocking EGFR signaling leading to a decrease in lung cancer cell proliferation. Whether PR can interact with Grb2 in cells is not known. To determine interaction through PPD-SH3 domain in cells, Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) assay was performed. A549 NSCLC cells were transfected with plasmids expressing either full-length Grb2 or SH3-domain deleted Grb2 (Grb2ΔSH3) tagged with Cterminus of YFP (YC) and PR tagged with N-terminus of YFP (YN). YFP fluorescence was readily detected in cytoplasm and nucleus of A549 expressing YC-full-length Grb2 and YN-PR, but not in cells expressing Grb2ΔSH3. Together, these data suggest that PR interacts with Grb2 in cells via PR-PPD and Grb2-SH3 interaction. Our findings supported an inhibitory role of PR extranuclear signaling through PPD-SH3 domain interaction in NSCLC cells.
Key Words: Lung cancer, EGFR, Progesterone receptor, Grb2
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A Case Study on Absenteeism and Academic Performance at University Level
Nur Izzah Jamil, Alia Nadira Rosle, Farrah Nadia Baharuddin & Aini Hayati Musa
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Negeri Sembilan Branch
ABSTRACT - Absenteeism can be a crucial problem in education system covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary education. However, the flexibility in tertiary academic provides students with opportunities for absenteeism. One of the important factors for students’ academic performance is a class attendance. Recent studies revealed that the class attendance lead to academic success. The scope of the study was narrowed down by assessing students’ academic performance based on their assessment score. Instead of analyzing students’ final examination score, this serves as an early measure for the lecturers to take necessary actions. The data used for this study is a primary data. The academic score and attendance data was extracted from the educator who handled the course. This study aimed for the correlation between assessment and absenteeism. A case study result shows that there is a statistically significant correlation between assessment and absenteeism.
Key Words: Absenteeism, Correlation analysis
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Consistency in Teaching Approach and Students’ Achievement: Welch’s ANOVA
Nur Izzah Jamil, Amariah Hanum Hussin & Jamil Mohamed Sapari
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Negeri Sembilan Branch
ABSTRACT - Mean values gained from different groups with different conditions are frequently compared in many studies. This study represented a case study results in consistencies of teaching approach and students’ academic achievement in higher education. Essentially, this study was core on the course background of the students, assessment score of the students and consistency of teaching approach. Student's assessment score with independent groups are subjected to the comparison under the assumptions of normal distribution and equal variances. In a condition of unequal variances, this study used the Welch's test as an adaptation of the classic ANOVA. The data used for this study is a primary data consisted of 82 Diploma students from three different classes. The assessment was derived from the educator who handled the course and was analyzed using SPSS software. Result from Welch test shows that there is no significant different in mean among classes (W=1.650, p-value = 0.205 > 0.05), indicates the consistencies of teaching approach for these three classes.
Key Words: Absenteeism, Correlation analysis, ANOVA, Welch’s
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An Overview of Access to Financing among Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs)
Salwa Muda*, Amariah Hanum Hussin, Siti Mariam Abdul Halim, Musliha Musman & Raziah Bi Mohamed Sadique
Faculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, UiTM Negeri Sembilan Campus Seremban 3, 70300 Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
ABSTRACT - The role of SMEs in boosting the economic development and poverty alleviation through employment opportunities has been recognized around the world. As a major contributor to the nation’s growth, the government has designed and continuously plans various programmes since the dependence phase in order to enhance the competitiveness and accelerating the SMEs growth. However, SMEs are associated with constraint resources in financial and non-financial aspects such as lack of efficient human resources and scarce in funds due to limited access to external financing despite the availability of various financial sources offered by the government and commercial banks. Limited access to finance has been highlighted in many SMEs studies as being one of the barriers for the company in embarking in innovative activities and investments in knowledge assets. Moreover, the access to finance is crucial in ensuring the sustainable and performance of SMEs in this knowledge-based economy. Hence, this conceptual paper firstly discusses the factors that hinder SMEs from successfully obtain the financing sources and secondly, highlights the importance of access to finance on the SMEs performance.
Key Words: Access to finance, SMEs, failure factors, firm performance
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Conference Translation Didactics in HUFLIT: Mini-tests vs Motivation
Nguyen Duc Chau
Ho Chi Minh City University of Foreign Languages- Information Technology
ABSTRACT - Students of Conference Translation courses always need Google Translate or Microsoft Translation (hereafter referred to as AI) to fulfill their lecturer’s requirements. According to a survey in 2015, almost all participants recognized the benefits that AI brought about and helped them cushion all the tasks, especially, the taxing Vietnamese-English works, the scary challenge for all. AI, in reality, helps provide a better choice of various vocabulary, idioms, phrasal verbs …owing to its enormous resources. The problem is that not many try to learn vocabulary and structures as required and more important; they feel no more motivation in the course. The paper aims to present a pilot study, including a pre-test, a post-test, and a survey, in the 2019 Conference Translation course in the Department of Foreign Languages, HCM City University of Foreign Languages and Information Technology (HUFLIT), find out some solutions, enhance and improve students’ learning motivation, especially their vocabulary, and structures, which are a kernel for all proficiency tests institutionally and internationally.
Key Words: Conference Translation, pre-test, post-test, AI, motivation
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