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Rock Deformation Model Incorporating the Intrinsic Shear Strength
Ahmad Fadzil Jobli, Mohd Jamaludin Md Noor & Ismacahyadi Bagus Mohamed Jais
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
ABSTRACT - Weathering of rocks in wet tropical climate gives a significant impact to the disintegration and the strength of rock. Thus, evaluating the stress-strain behaviour of weathered rock is significant for characterizing the deformation characteristic and other engineering input parameters. Various researchers have proposed multiple methods to express rock deformation characteristic, however due to different nature and complex formulation, these criteria are not easy to be employed. Moreover most of these criteria were not considering the tropical weathering states and the confinement effect. Therefore, objective of this study is to introduce an improved rock deformation framework which incorporates the intrinsic shear strength, that able to model the complete stress-strain behaviour of weathered rock under anisotropic condition. Three different weathering grades of granite have been tested under rock triaxial test to characterize the shear strength parameters. A newly developed mobilised Hoek-Brown failure envelope is introduced to be incorporated into the deformation framework, which able to define the corresponding deviator stress prediction. It is interesting to discover that deviator stress can be explained by a unique equation; UT = (q/a)n. The relationship is considered unique as the coefficient of the strain energy ―a‖ and ―n‖ are remain constant at any confining pressures. Since the Strain Energy (UT) is a function of Deviator Stress (q) and Strain (Ɛ), it is possible to get a relationship between these three parameters. Therefore the second unique relationship is proposed; Ɛ = b (UT2/q)(1/k). Both unique relationships together with the Hoek-Brown principle stress equation will be utilized to simulate the complete stress-strain curves of weathered granite under different confining pressures. The simulation results are compared against the laboratory data and good agreement was found to validate the model framework. The proposed approach provides engineers and designers with a simple method for rapid estimation of strength and deformation characteristic of a material to be used in any engineering design.
Key Words: Weathered Rock, Weathered Granite, Shear Strength, Stress-Strain, Strain Energy.
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Production of Dihydrated Aldehyde through Celluose Ring Opening Using Sodium Periodate
Nur Wahibah Mohd Zaki, Khairina Taufek Al-Khakim, Nur Nadia Dzulkifli, Ahmad Husaini Mohamed & Sheikh Ahmad Izzadin Sheikh Ahmad Ghazali
Faculty of Applied Sciences, University Teknologi MARA, Negeri Sembilan Branch Kuala Pilah Campus 72000, Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
ABSTRACT - The sodium periodate oxidation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) involves the opening ring of the hydroxyl group in the pyranose ring at the C-2 and C-3 positions. The reaction has formed a dihydrated aldehyde (DHC) as an intermediate product, which can further other reactions and produce a variety of products. The different quantity of sodium periodate 1g, 3g and 5g were investigated under control conditions of temperature, pH and reaction time. The ATR-IR, FESEM-EDX and XRD were performed to characterize the MCC and DHC. The O-H stretching band appears at 3400 - 3300 cm ˉ1 whereas the C-OH stretching band appears at 890 - 880 cmˉ1. FESEM was used to analyze the surface morphology of MCC and DHC. Different surface morphology patterns of MCC and DHC have been concluded that MCC surface morphology affected by the amount of sodium periodate. The crystallinity of MCC and DHC was characterized using XRD, showing that MCC crystallinity increased when a high amount of sodium periodate is used.
Key Words: Microcrystalline cellulose, Dihydrated aldehyde cellulose, sodium periodate
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Study on Potential of Biosurfactant Rhamno NR22 on Demulsification of Industrial Emulsion
Farah Nasyitah Esa & Nik Raikhan Nik Him
Universiti Teknologi MARA
ABSTRACT - Chemical synthesized demulsifier in oil industry and illegal dumping of waste motor oil from workshop industry have caused environmental issues. Rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced from Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR22 (Ps. NR. 22) has unique properties to demulsify the unwanted emulsion by lowering the interfacial tension of the emulsion. The ability to demulsify and separate the water-oil emulsion in waste motor oil from local workshop by running several demulsification tests was studied. The utilization of Kay’s and PPGAS minimal with glucose as carbon substrate has enhanced the production of biosurfactant. 410 ml of foam that lasted for 5 hours long was observed on the biosurfactant which was 51% of total volume implied on the stability of the biosurfactant. From the bottle test, 35% of demulsification percentage was calculated which demonstrated the separation of oil and water phase. A maximum of 9.4cm diameter of clear zone was obtained after performing oil drop collapsing test. A positive result shown from oil drop collapsing test proved the interfacial activity. All these results showed Rhamno NR22 biosurfactant has a great potential to be applied as a high efficiency and eco-friendly demulsifier for unwanted emulsion in various industries.
Key Words: Biosurfactant, demulsification, rhamnolipid, Pseudomonas aeuruginosa.
Analytical Study on Cfrp Repair Method for Lower Flange of Girder End with Corrosion Damages
Atsuya Takamori1 & Norliyati Mohd Amin2
1Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan, 2Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
ABSTRACT - The steel girder end is easy to corrode as compared to other members due to the structure shape. The corrosion damage of web plate, stiffener and lower flange is typical corrosion damage of girder end. The strength of girder decreases due to area loss of girder end. The CFRP adhesion repair method attract attention as efficient repair method for steel member. However, previously, the CFRP repair method for lower flange of girder end is not considered. In this study, the applicability for girder end lower flange of CFRP repair method is considered using finite element analysis LUSAS software. The results of analysis show that it is necessary to repair for lower flange of girder end with area loss due to the stress concentrate int lower flange and girder end become brittle fracture in girder end with area loss of web plate, stiffener and lower flange. The stress concentrate in lower flange is improved due to CFRP repair method for lower flange. The stress and strain amount of lower flange decreasing because the stress and strain are transferred from steel to CFRP after damage zone of stiffener reach yielding state. However, the results of analysis show that it is more effectively to repair for both web plate and stiffener compare to only lower flange in steel girder end in a case of girder with area loss of stiffener, web plate and lower flange.
Key Words: FE analysis, corrosion damage of steel girder end, CFRP repair method
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Water Conservation during Ablution: A Case Study at Al-Barokah Mosque Kampung Bukit Cherakah Jaya
Mohd Aiman bin Mohd Fauzi, Syahid Irfan bin Yunus, Jaanavee Devi a/p Sundaresan, Fatin Najihah binti Zainal Abidin, Zainah binti Othman & Azizi Mursidy bin Zainol Abidin
Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah
ABSTRACT - The act of performing ablution involves cleansing certain parts of body with clean water is a compulsory ritual for any Muslim before conducting the daily prayers. Due to this, water wastage is common among the Muslims and little effort has been taken to conserve water when performing the ablution. In this preliminary study, which was conducted at the Al Barokah Mosque Kampong Bukit Cherakah Jaya, Shah Alam, Selangor, it was found that no specific initiative on water conservation during ablution has ever taken place. In spite of the high water bills for five months, the self-audit on water usage was not carried out. Therefore, the aim of the study is to measure the consumption of water during ablution. This study also aims at educating the Jemaah on how to conduct the water audit. Comparing monthly water utilization bill in order to perform the water audit. A specially designed sticker is made purposely for the implementation of the study. The sticker contains information and procedures on how to consume water as minimum as 500 ml during ablution. These stickers were posted at each ablution point available in the mosque. Green indicators are also being used to indicate the positions of the water taps during ablution. Experiments and observations were conducted to measure and monitor the water consumption for the duration of three months. As a result of the knowledge imparted to the Jemaah, there was a slight reduction in the amount of water used for ablution over three consecutive months. Based on the water audit conducted from the month of October to December, it shows that as much as 17 cubic meters were saved. This project managed to reduce the consumption of water for ablution by 44% during these particular months. To encourage this act of water saving in future, further research on the attitude of Jemaah needs to be conducted to discover the reason behind this behavior so that it can be replicated in other mosques.
Key Words: ablution, water conservation and water consumption.
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The Perception of Kampung Bukit Cherakah Jaya’s Community on Co-Management Antecedent: A Case Study on Empangan Tasik Subang Forest Reserve
Jaanavee Devi a/p Sundaresan, Fatin Najihah binti Zainal Abidin, Syahid Irfan bin Yunus, Mohd Aiman bin Mohd Fauzi, Zainah binti Othman & Nurul Ajleaa binti Abdul Rahman
Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah
ABSTRACT - Community participation is crucial for forest management. The simple reality is that survival of flora and fauna depends upon community engagement and participation. Although, there are government agencies, including the Forestry Department and the Wildlife Department which are responsible for the protection of natural resources, the commitment of the surrounding community in ensuring the preservation of the natural resource is paramount.The community can act as the eyes and ears for the authorities to ensure that no harm befalls the invaluable resources that are so crucial to the survival of the human race. The Kampung Bukit Cherakah Jaya, Shah Alam, Selangor, is in close proximity to the Empangan Tasik Subang Forest Reserve. This forest reserve has been the habitat of wild animals, flora and fauna. Wild animals including tapir, snake and wild boar were seen roaming the roads and occasionally killed by vehicles plying nearby roads. More often than not, the tapirs, in particular, are left to die on the roadsides instead of being sent to Sungai Dusun Rehabilitation Centre to recuperate. In situations such as this, the local community can alert the Wildlife Department. Therefore, this research is conducted to understand the perception of the Kampung Bukit Cherakah Jaya’s community towards comanagement antecedent on the Empangan Tasik Subang Forest Reserve. This is done by interviewing four members of the village committee who have had encounters with tapirs and other wildlife when development projects began in the surrounding areas of the forest reserve. Interview results showed that a majority of the interviewees were not fully satisfied with the government agencies responsible for forest protection. However, they agreed that a lot of efforts have been put by the Government. The community, on the other hand was of the view that their assistance will lessen the burden of the Government. However, to understand the extent that the community are willing to go in helping the Government will require a further research.
Key Words: co-management, community engagement, and natural resources.
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A Study on The Effects of Temperature, Salinity and pH on the Rheological Behavior of Water Based Mud (WBM) with Graphene Nanoparticles
Muhammad Hammad Rasool, Asif Zamir, Maqsood Ahmed & Shaun Edgar Stephen
Faculty of Geosciences and Petroleum Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Malaysia
ABSTRACT - Exploration of ultra-deep oil and gas reservoirs in harsh environment brings about the importance of the enhancement of drilling fluids in the oil industry. Evidently, oil based muds (OBM’s) are most suitable for harsh environments, but certainly not the best candidate due to its adverse environmental effects. Graphene nanoparticles, was singled out as a potential additive to WBM due to its rheology enhancing property. However, previous researchers have claimed that temperature, pH and salinity has an effect on the physical behavior graphene. Therefore, graphene was used as an additive in WBM and subjected to various temperatures (77°F, 194°F, 320°F), pH (6, 7, 8) and salinities (10,000 ppm, 20,000 ppm, 30,000 ppm) and tested for its rheological properties and filtrate loss. It is discovered that acidic environments (pH 6) results in very low plastic viscosities between 1.5 cp and 1.8 cp at 0 ppm salinity and increases minimally with increasing salinity. Whereas, basic environments (pH 8) cause a surge in plastic viscosity by 57% at increasing salinities. Therefore, it is safe to conclude that at basic conditions, the salt concentration in the graphene induced drilling fluid enhances the mud rheology by increasing the plastic viscosity. Secondly, it is observed that the increase in salinity has a very minimal effect on the yield points at acidic and neutral environments. However, the basic environment provides an increase in yield point of 57.1%, which makes pH level an important parameter to monitor in real time drilling condition. Thirdly, the filtrate loss increases by a substantially large percentage of 167%, at acidic and basic conditions while increasing the salinity from 10,000 ppm to 20,000 ppm. It is concluded that the filtrate loss of drilling fluids with graphene are highly sensitive to salinity and should be kept within a safe operating window. The mud cake thickness at acidic conditions are between 9.5 mm and 11.3 mm while at basic conditions between 4 mm and 7 mm. Therefore, we bring to conclusion that pH condition of the drilling fluid is a crucial key component to control, to keep drilling operations safe and economically viable.
Key Words: Mud Rheology, Graphene Nano-particles, SalinIty, Temperature