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A Preliminary Study on Snack Bar Formulation based on Gum Arabic
Syaidatul Farhanah Ishak¹, Hayati Adilin Mohd Abd Majid¹*, Zamzahaila Mohd Zin², Mohamad Khairi Mohd Zainol² & Lovelyna Benedict Jipiu³
1 Faculty of Hotel and Tourism Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Terengganu, 21080, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
2 Faculty of Fisheries and Food Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), 21030, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia
³ Faculty of Hotel and Tourism Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Selangor, 42300, Kuala Selangor, Selangor, Malaysia
ABSTRACT - Snack bar is one of the convenient products and ready-made food to satisfy hunger, convenient and contains sources of nutrients. Moreover, the fewer of healthy snack bar with good nutrient composition in the market also becomes a factor to the consumer who are consume and seeking unhealthy snack bar. Due to consumer demand, the snack bar would be an ideal food to formulate to complement with fast-growing natural food. The intention of the study to formulate a snack bar using functional food ingredients such as Gum Arabic (GA). In order to fomulate the snack bar, the acceptable ratio of GA was determined. The formulation included oat, honey, GA, rice and glucose syrup. The trial ratios of GA were conducted starting from 1:15,1:25, 1:35 for the first trial, 1:5,1:10,1:15 for the second trial, and 1:10, 1:20, 1:30 for the third trial. Based on the observation, snack bar with different concentrations of Acacia senegal (10%, 20%, and 30%) and Acacia seyal (10%, 20%, and 30%) from the third trial were chosen to be conducted for the further formulate of snack bar and presented high acceptability during sensory evaluation. The sensory methods applied allowed to determine the most accepted ratio and the concentration of the ingredients to formulate snack bar. In conclusion, the third trial is the most suitable ratio which contain pleasant taste and texture that may contribute to the consumer satisfaction and benefits.
Key Words: Gum Arabic, Snack bar, Sensory Acceptability
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Computer Science Department’s Server Room Remote Monitoring Application
Mohamad Izzuddin Mohd Redzuan* & Suzaimah Ramli
Department of Computer Science, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
ABSTRACT - In the 21st century, evolvement of human civilization has parallel impact with the development of various technology to solve problems. Problems such as solving simple math calculation using calculators to manufacturing using robots for microchips creation and communication without boundaries across the globe becomes possible using satellite technologies. Moreover, the Internet of Things (IoT) devices are the uptrend technologies that offers connection between devices and the availability of Internet access to complete certain task. The most used IoT devices are monitoring systems that provides all the IoT features for the purpose of monitoring consistently 24 hours daily which are impossible to human ability. As previously occurred in the UPNM, the server failed to resumes any transaction due to overheating. The need for temperature monitoring in the server rooms is crucial to tackle the overheating devices that could cause major problems in the future. Therefore, this paper proposed a remote monitoring system using sensors to detect anomalies and transfers the data to the application via a microcontroller. The system design, architecture, implementation, and graphical user interface (GUI) of the remote monitoring system application will be explained in this paper together with all the components that can detect heat and water through the status indicator of light and sound signal. In addition, this system provides real time respond appropriately to the problems that trigger the signal to avoid unnecessary disruptions.
Key Words: Internet of Things (IoT), Server Room, Remote Monitoring Application, Graphical User Interface (GUI), Arduino.
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Development of Less Sugar Roselle Juice
Tuan Nurul Nazihah Tuan Azlan1, Yusnita Hamzah1 & Hayati Adilin Mohd Abd Majid2*
1Faculty of Fisheries and Food Science,
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), Terengganu, Malaysia
2Faculty of Hotel and Tourism Management,
Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Terengganu, Malaysia
ABSTRACT - The awareness towards healthy beverage consumption had increased the demands on fruit juice especially on popular juice such as roselle juice. Moreover, the abundance of high sugar content of beverage in the market also becomes a concern to the consumers who were seeking for the less sugar-ready to drink beverages. This study was carried out to formulate the less sugar roselle juice. Two stages were involved in the development process with the first objective was to choose the roselle calyx to water ratio that gives acceptable extract properties and the second objective was to determine the sweeteners used for sugar replacement. For the first objective, roselle juice extracted using 1:20 ratio showed the most acceptable properties (colour, odour, sourness and bitterness) as compared to the 1:2, 1:10 and 1:30 of roselle calyces to water ratio. For sweetener, sucrose was replaced by stevia as the non-caloric sweetener and xylitol was incorporated to mask the bitter aftertaste from stevia at the combination of 0.03% stevia and 4% xylitol. In conclusion, less sugar roselle juice was successfully developed which is believed to be more nutritious and beneficial juice for consumers.
Key Words: Juice, Roselle, Less sugar, stevia, xylitol
Oil Palm Roots Monitoring Using Scanner Method
Elisa Rumpang1,2, Kho Lip Khoon2 & Sim Siong Fong1
1University Malaysia Sarawak, 2Malaysian Palm Oil Board
ABSTRACT - Understanding root mortality and production is important in developing a standard approach for root estimates and modelling. Several techniques have been developed to measure root production and behaviour of oil palms on peat soil. The existing methods are divided into two techniques: traditional (destructive) and non-destructive methods. However, no accurate methodology has been proposed in determining the various root morphological parameters, particularly on tropical peat soil due to the complexities of soil properties and conditions. In this study, the performance of root dynamics of oil palms in peat soil was taken using a non-destructive, in situ scanning method. The image-scanning method technology will be very useful for studying rhizosphere processes like root growth and turnover, root morphology, and below ground interactions.
Keywords: oil palm, roots, scanner, root production
Performance of Binary and Ternary Blended Cement Concrete Containing Eggshell and Silica Fume
Muhammad Darwis Bin Abdul Rauf, Ahmad Nurfaidhi Rizalman* & Broneca Sibin
Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88450, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia
ABSTRACT - This research presents the investigation on the performance of cement mortar containing different preparation methods of eggshell powder (ESP). Four (4) types of eggshell powder (ESP) were prepared as the cement replacement, including untreated air-dried eggshell powder (UAESP), untreated oven dried eggshell powder (UOESP), treated air-dried eggshell powder (TAESP) and treated oven dried eggshell powder (TOESP). The cement mortar with water to cement ratio of 0.485 were mixed with 20% of ESP by the weight of the cement. The effects of ESP were investigated in terms of workability, compressive strength, rate of strength development and hardened density at 7 and 28 days. Compared to untreated ESP mortar, treated ESP mortar had lower workability, higher compressive strength, better rate of strength development, and higher density. Meanwhile, the effect between air-dried and oven dried ESP on the workability of cement mortar is insignificant. However, it was discovered that the oven dried ESP mortar had higher compressive strength, better rate of strength development, and higher density than the air-dried ESP mortar. It can be concluded that the most suitable preparation methods of ESP to be used as cement replacement is the treated oven dried (TOESP) method.
Key Words: Eggshell, Silica Fume, Workability, Compressive Strength, Density
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Quality of Life (QoL) in Chronic Renal Disease for Muslim Patients based on Islamic Perspective: A Review
Zakirah Binti Ahmad Nawi, Yuzana Binti Mohd Yusop* & Harmy Bin Mohamed Yusoff
Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
ABSTRACT - One of the best ways to evaluate person’s health quality is through measuring their Quality of Life (QoL). The QoL concept gained rapid popularity over the last four decades in assessing health. It has been used as the sole endpoint in studies designed specifically to develop a positive physical or mental well-being of sick people. The purpose of this review is to address the needs of a new Islam-specific health-related QoL instruments for chronic kidney Muslim patients. A literature search was conducted using electronic databases. For the purpose of the review QoL from literature review for chronic kidney disease was referred. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to explore the meaning of QoL and identify the components of QoL for Muslim patients based on Islamic perspective. The solution for the circumstance is the researchers want to understand the QoL among chronic renal disease based on Islamic views. This study uses qualitative method by collecting data through in-depth interviews among renal patients. The researchers have a preference to employ Interpretative Phenomenology Analysis (IPA) as a method of analysis in this study. IPA could polish lived experiences about feeling and innermost deliberation of the experience. Subsequently this method is suitable to know about QoL for renal patients in details. This privileging renal patients’ viewpoints reflects a recognition that each of them is the expert on their own lives, and it can make phenomenology empowering as it provides access to the viewpoints of those who may be otherwise unheard. Prior conducting complete interview, the patients will be given brief explanation about the purpose of the research and their consent will be acquired to participate. To conduct the interview, prior appointments will be booked as considering the current situation and suitibility of the patients. A total of 16 renal patients will be approached. The interviews will be conducted in person for about 25 minutes. This research is exclusive due to focusing on Muslim patients with chronic renal disease maintains the QoL according to the Islamic perspective and views.
Key Words: Chronic Renal Disease, Quality of Life (QoL), Muslim Patients, Islamic Perspective.
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Sonophotocatalysis for Diclofenac Degradation Using Micron-sized Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)
Thamisha Steven*, Rab Nawaz & Chong Fai Kait
Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Perak 32610, Malaysia
ABSTRACT - Sonophotocatalysis (combination of ultrasonic irradiation and photocatalysis methods) employing nanoparticle titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been proven to be a promising method for remediation of wastewater containing diclofenac. However, the nanosized materials led to tedious separation process during wastewater treatment. The main aim of the research involves development of visible light-active micron-sized TiO2 for sonophotocatalytic degradation of diclofenac. Micron-sized TiO2 photocatalyst was grown from pre-synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles via hydrothermal treatment. The physicochemical properties of the photocatalyst were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectroscopy (DRUV-Vis). The micron-sized anatase TiO2 photocatalyst has an average particle size of 1.58 mm with flower-like hierarchical structure morphology. Its low band gap energy (2.71 eV) was able to enhance diclofenac degradation performance under visible light irradiation from a 500-W halogen lamp. Degradation of diclofenac via sonophotocatalysis was investigated against various process parameters such as initial concentration of diclofenac (10-25 ppm) and photocatalyst dosage (0.1-1.0 g/L). UV-Vis spectroscopy was used to monitor the extent of diclofenac degradation during reaction. The highest diclofenac degradation (81.5%) was observed for the optimised sonophotocatalytic conditions of 0.4g/L photocatalyst dosage and 10 ppm initial concentration of diclofenac solution.
Key Words: Sonophotocatalysis; micron-sized; TiO2.
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